Scientific Literature

1950 - 1959

Dole, M., C.D. Keeling, and D.G. Rose The pile irradiation of polyethylene. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 76 (1954): 4304-4311.

Keeling, C.D. and M. Dole A Viscometer for Solutions of High Polymers. Journal of Polymer Science. 14 (1954): 105-111.

Keeling, C.D. Variations in concentration and isotopic abundances of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Recent Research in Climatology. Ed. H. Craig. Proceedings of a Conference held at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, 25-26 March 1957: Committee on Research in Water Resources and University of California, 1957. 43-49. PDF

Keeling, C.D. The Concentration and Isotopic Abundances of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Rural Areas. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 13 (1958): 322-334.

1960 - 1969

Keeling, C.D. The Concentration and Isotopic Abundances of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere. Tellus. 12 (1960): 200-203. PDF

Keeling, C.D. Effect of Local Environment on the Isotopic Enrichment in Plants. Comitato Nazionale per L’Energia Nucleare, Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare Pisa. (1960): 214-215.

Keeling, C.D. The Concentration and Isotopic Abundances of Carbon Dioxide in Rural and Marine Air. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 24 (1961): 277-298.

Keeling, C.D. A Mechanism for Cyclic Enrichment of Carbon-12 by Terrestrial Plants. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 24 (1961): 299-313.

Bolin, B. and C.D. Keeling Large-Scale Atmospheric Mixing as Deduced from the Seasonal and Meridional Variations of Carbon Dioxide. Journal of Geophysical Research. 68 (1963): 3899-3920.

Craig, H. and C.D. Keeling The Effects of Atmospheric N2O on the Measured Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 27 (1963): 549-551.

Brown, C.W. and C.D. Keeling The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research. 70 (1965): 6077-6085.

Keeling, C.D. Carbon Dioxide in Surface Waters of the Pacific Ocean 2. Calculation of the Exchange with the Atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research. 70 (1965): 6099-6102.

Keeling, Charles D., Norris W. Rakestraw, and Lee S. Waterman Carbon dioxide in surface waters of the pacific Ocean. I. Measurements of the distribution. Journal of Geophysical Research. 70 (1965): 6087-6097.

Pales, Jack C. and Charles D. Keeling The Concentration of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Hawaii. Journal of Geophysical Research. 70 (1965): 6053-6076.

Waterman, L.S. Carbon Dioxide in Surface Waters. Nature. 205 (1965): 1099-1100.

Kelling, C.D. and B. Bolin The Simultaneous Use of Chemical Tracers in Oceanic Studies I. General Theory of Reservoir Models. Tellus. 19 (1967): 566-581.

Keeling, C.D. Carbon Dioxide in Surface Ocean Waters 4. Global Distribution. Journal of Geophysical Research. 73 (1968): 4543-4553.

Keeling, C.D. and B. Bolin The Simultaneous Use of Chemical Tracers in Oceanic Studies II. A Three-Reservoir Model of the North and South Pacific Oceans. Tellus. 20 (1968): 17-54.

Keeling, C.D., T.B. Harris, and E.M. Wilkins Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at 500 and 700 millibars. Journal of Geophysical Research. 73 (1968): 4511-4528.

Keeling, C.D. and L.S. Waterman Carbon Dioxide in Surface Ocean Waters 3. Measurements on Lusiad Expedition 1962–1963. Journal of Geophysical Research. 73 (1968): 4529-4541.

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1970 - 1979

Multiple Authorship Principally responsible for Section 1.2.1 ’Carbon Dioxide’. Man's Impact on the Global Environment. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1970. 46-55.

Keeling, C.D. A Chemist Thinks About the Future, Professor’s Inaugural Lecture, May 29, 1969. Archives of Environmental Health. 20 (1970): 764-777.

Keeling, C.D. Is Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Fuel Changing Man's Environment?. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 114 (1970): 10-17.

Wong, C.S. Quantitative analysis of total carbon dioxide in sea water: A new extraction method. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts. 17 (1970): 9-17.

Bacastow, R. and C.D. Keeling Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Radiocarbon in the Natural Carbon Cycle: II. Changes from A.D. 1700 to 2070 as Deduced from a Geochemical Model. Brookhaven Symposium in Biology No. 24, Carbon and the Biosphere. Ed. G.M. Woodwell and E.V. Pecan. United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1973. 86-135.

Ekdahl Jr., C.A. and C.D. Keeling Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Radiocarbon in the Natural Carbon Cycle: I. Quantitative Deductions from the Records of Mauna Loa Observatory and at the South Pole. Brookhaven Symposium in Biology No. 24, Carbon and the Biosphere. Ed. G.M. Woodwell and E.V. Pecan. United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1973. 51-85.

Keeling, C.D. Industrial Production of Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Fuels and Limestone. Tellus. 25 (1973): 174-198.

Keeling, C.D. The Carbon Dioxide Cycle: Reservoir Models to Depict the Exchange of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide with the Oceans and Land Plants, chapter 6. Chemistry of the Lower Atmosphere. Ed. S.I. Rasool. New York: Plenum Press, 1973. 251-329.

Multiple Authorship The Physical Basis of Climate and Climate Modelling, Author of Section 5.7. Carbon Dioxide Processes, GARP Publication Series No. 16. International Council of Scientific Unions, 1975. 64-66.

R.B. Bacastow Modulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the Southern Oscillation. Nature. 261 (1976): 116-118.

Keeling, C.D., J.A. Adams, Jr., C.A. Ekdahl, Jr., and P.R. Guenther Atmospheric carbon dioxide variations at the South Pole. Tellus. 28 (1976): 552-564.

Keeling, C.D., R.B. Bacastow, A.E. Bainbridge, C.A. Ekdahl, Jr., P.R. Guenther, L.S. Waterman, and J.F. S. Chin Atmospheric carbon dioxide variations at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Tellus. 28 (1976): 538-551.

Keeling, C.D. The Influence of Mauna Loa Observatory on the Development of Atmospheric CO2 Research. Mauna Loa Observatory : a 20th anniversary report. Ed. Miller, John. Silver Spring, Md.: Environmental Research Laboratories, Air Resources Laboratories, 1978. . PDF

Keeling, C.D. and M. Stuiver Atmospheric carbon dioxide in the 19th century; discussion and reply. Science. 202 (1978): 1109.

Keeling, C.D. The Suess effect: 13Carbon-14Carbon interrelations. Environment International. 2 (1979): 229-300.

Keeling, C.D., P.P. Tans, and W.G. Mook Recent trends in the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature. 277 (1979): 121-123.

Lowe, D.C., P.R. Guenther, and C.D. Keeling The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Baring Head, New Zealand. Tellus. 31 (1979): 58-67.

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1980 - 1989

Bacastow, R.B., J.A. Adams, C.D. Keeling, D.J. Moss, T.P. Whorf, and C.S. Wong Atmospheric carbon dioxide, the southern oscillation, and the weak 1975 El Nino. Science. 210 (1980): 66-68.

Keeling, C.D. The Oceans and Biosphere as Future Sinks for Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide. Interactions of Energy and Climate. Ed. Bach, Wilfrid,Pankrath, Jurgen,Williams, Jill. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Pub. Co., 1980. 129-147.

Keeling, Charles D., Robert B. Bacastow, and Pieter P. Tans Predicted shift in the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Geophysical Research Letters. 7 (1980): 505-508.

Multiple Authorship Chapter 3 (Sections 3.2 and 3.3, pp 86-94, authored by C.D. Keeling.). SCOPE 16: Carbon Cycle Modelling. Ed. Bolin, Bert. Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 1981. 81-101.

Bacastow, R.B. and C.D. Keeling Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration and the Observed Airborne Fraction. SCOPE 16: Carbon Cycle Modelling. Ed. Bolin, Bert. Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 1981. 103-112.

Bacastow, R.B. and C.D. Keeling Hemispheric Airborne Fractions Difference and the Hemispheric Exchange Time. SCOPE 16: Carbon Cycle Modelling. Ed. Bolin, Bert. Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 1981. 241-246.

Bacastow, R.B. and C.D. Keeling Pioneer Effect Correction to the Observed Airborne Fraction. SCOPE 16: Carbon Cycle Modelling. Ed. Bolin, Bert. Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 1981. 247-248.

Bolin, Bert, C.D. Keeling, R.B. Bacastow, A. Bjorkstrom, and U. Siegenthaler The Oceans and Biosphere as Future Sinks for Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide. SCOPE 16: Carbon Cycle Modelling. Ed. Bolin, Bert. Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 1981. 1-28.

Weiss, R.F., C.D. Keeling, and H. Craig Determination of tropospheric nitrous oxide. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres. 86 (1981): 7197-7202.

Griffith, D.W. T., C.D. Keeling, J.A. Adams, P.R. Guenther, and R.B. Bacastow Calculations of Carrier Gas Effects in Non-Dispersive Infrared Analysers. II. Comparisons with Experiment. Tellus. 34 (1982): 385-397.

Keeling, C.D., R.B. Bacastow, and T.P. Whorf Measurements of the Concentration of Carbon Dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Carbon Dioxide Review. Ed. Clark, W.C.. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. 377-385.

Weiss, R.F., R.A. Jahnke, and C.D. Keeling Seasonal Effects of Temperature and Salinity on the Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide in Seawater. Nature. 300 (1982): 511-513.

Mook, W.G., M. Koopmans, A.F. Carter, and C.D. Keeling Seasonal, Latitudinal, and Secular Variations in the Abundance and Isotopic Ratios of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide 1. Results from Land Stations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres. 88 (1983): 915-933.

Keeling, Charles D., Alane F. Carter, and Willem G. Mook Seasonal, Latitudinal, and Secular Variations in the Abundance and Isotopic Ratios of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide 2. Results from Oceanographic Cruises in the Tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research. 89 (1984): 4615-4628.

Bacastow, R.B., C.D. Keeling, and T.P. Whorf Seasonal Amplitude Increase in Atmospheric CO2 Concentration at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 1959-1982. Journal of Geophysical Research. 90 (1985): 10529-10540.

Elliott, W.P., L. Machta, and C.D. Keeling An Estimate of the Biospheric Contribution to the Atmospheric CO2 Increase Based on Direct Measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory. Journal of Geophysical Research. 90 (1985): 3741-3746.

Keeling, C.D. and R. Revelle Effects of El Nino/Southern Oscillation on the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide. Meteoritics. 20 (1985): 437-450.

Keeling, C.D., T.P. Whorf, Wong Chi Shing, and R.D. Bellagay The Concentration of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Ocean Weather Station 'P' From 1969 to 1981. Journal of Geophysical Research. 90 (1985): 10511-10528.

Tucker, C.J., I.Y. Fung, C.D. Keeling, and R.H. Gammon Relationship Between Atmospheric CO2 Variations and a Satellite-Derived Vegetation Index. Nature. 319 (1985): 195-199.

From, E. and C.D. Keeling Reassessment of late 19th century atmospheric carbon dioxide variations in the air of western Europe and the British Isles based on an unpublished analysis of contemporary air masses by G.S. Callendar. Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 38 (1986): 87-105.

Heimann, M. and C.D. Keeling Meridional Eddy Diffusion Model of the Transport of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide 1. The Seasonal Carbon Cycle over the Tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research. 91 (1986): 7765-7781.

Heimann, M., C.D. Keeling, and I.Y. Fung Simulating the Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Distribution with a Three-Dimensional Tracer Model. The Changing Carbon Cycle, A Global Analysis. Ed. Trabalka, J.R. and D.E. Reichle. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986. 16-49.

Keeling, C.D. and M. Heimann Meridional Eddy Diffusion Model of the Transport of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide 2. The Mean Annual Carbon Cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research. 91 (1986): 7782-7796.

Heimann, M. and C.D. Keeling A Three Dimensional Model of Atmospheric CO2 Transport Based on Observed Winds: 2. Model Description and Simulated Tracer Experiments. Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas. Ed. Peterson, David H.. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1989. 237-275. PDF

Heimann, M., C.D. Keeling, and C.J. Tucker A Three Dimensional Model of Atmospheric CO2 Winds: 3. Seasonal Cycle and Synoptic Time Scale Variations. Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas. Ed. Peterson, David H.. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1989. 277-303. PDF

Keeling, C.D., R.B. Bacastow, A.F. Carter, S.C. Piper, T.P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W.G. Mook, and H. Roeloffzen A Three Dimensional Model of Atmospheric CO2 Transport Based on Observed Winds: 1. Analysis of Observational Data. Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas. Ed. Peterson, David H.. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1989. 165-236. PDF

Keeling, C.D., S.C. Piper, and M. Heimann A Three Dimensional Model of Atmosperhic CO2 Transport Based on Observed Winds: 4. Mean Annual Gradients and Interannual Variations. Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas. Ed. Peterson, David H.. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1989. 305-363. PDF

Kohlmaier, G.H., E.O. Sire, A. Janecek, C.D. Keeling, S.C. Piper, and R. Revelle Modelling the seasonal contribution of a CO2 fertilization effect of the terrestrial vegetation to the amplitude increase in atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa Observatory. Tellus, Series B (Chemical and Physical Meteorology). 41B (1989): 487-510.

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1990 - 1999

Kohlmaier, G.H., R. Revelle, C.D. Keeling, and S.C. Piper Reply to Idso. [On the causes of seasonal variations in atmospheric CO2]. Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 43B (1991): 342-346.

Keeling, C.D. Lecture 2: Surface Ocean CO2. The Global Carbon Cycle. Ed. Heimann, M.. Berlin: Springer, 1993. 413-429.

Keeling, C.D. Lecture 1: Global Observations of Atmospheric CO2. The Global Carbon Cycle. Ed. Heimann, M.. Berlin: Springer, 1993. 1-29.

Keeling, C.D., T.P. Whorf, M. Wahlen, and J. van der Plicht Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature. 375 (1995): 666-670.

Bacastow, R.B., C.D. Keeling, T.J. Lueker, M. Wahlen, and W.G. Mook The 13C Suess effect in the world surface oceans and its implications for oceanic uptake of CO2: Analysis of observations at Bermuda. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 10 (1996): 335-346. PDF

Hunt, E.R., S.C. Piper, R. Nemani, C.D. Keeling, R.D. Otto, and S.W. Running Global net carbon exchange and intra-annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted by an ecosystem process model and three-dimensional atmospheric transport model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 10 (1996): 431-456.

Keeling, C.D., J.F. S. Chin, and T.P. Whorf Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Nature. 382 (1996): 146-149.

Keeling, C.D. and T.P. Whorf Possible forcing of global temperature by the oceanic tides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (1997): 8321-8328.

Myneni, R.B., C.D. Keeling, C.J. Tucker, G. Asrar, and R.R. Nemani Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature. 386 (1997): 698-702.

Gruber, N., C.D. Keeling, and T.F. Stocker Carbon-13 constraints on the seasonal inorganic carbon budget at the BATS site in the northwestern Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 45 (1998): 673-717.

Keeling, C.D. Rewards and penalties of monitoring the earth. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 23 (1998): 25-82.

Myneni, R.B., C.J. Tucker, G. Asrar, and C.D. Keeling Interannual variations in satellite-sensed vegetation index data from 1981 to 1991. Journal of Geophysical Research. 103 (1998): 6145-6160.

Whorf, T. and C.D. Keeling Rising carbon. New Scientist. 157 (1998): 54-54.

Gruber, Nicolas and Charles D Keeling Seasonal Carbon Cycling in the Sargasso Sea Near Bermuda. Univ. of California Press. 30 (1999): .

Gruber, N., C.D. Keeling, R.B. Bacastow, P.R. Guenther, T.J. Lueker, M. Wahlen, H.A. J. Meijer, W.G. Mook, and T.F. Stocker Spatiotemporal patterns of carbon-13 in the global surface oceans and the oceanic Suess effect. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 13 (1999): 307-335.

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2000 - 2009

Keeling, Charles D. and Timothy P. Whorf The 1,800-year oceanic tidal cycle: A possible cause of rapid climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (2000): 3814-3819.

Lueker, T.J., A.G. Dickson, and C.D. Keeling Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K-1 and K-2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry. 70 (2000): 105-119.

Gruber, N. and C.D. Keeling An improved estimate of the isotopic air-sea disequilibrium of CO2: Implications for the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Geophysical Research Letters. 28 (2001): 555-558.

Gruber, N., C.D. Keeling, and N.R. Bates Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean carbon sink. Science. 298 (2002): 2374-2378.

Lamb, M.F., C.L. Sabine, R.A. Feely, R. Wanninkhof, R.M. Key, G.C. Johnson, F.J. Millero, K. Lee, T.H. Peng, A. Kozyr, J.L. Bullister, D. Greeley, R.H. Byrne, D.W. Chipman, A.G. Dickson, C. Goyet, P.R. Guenther, M. Ishii, K.M. Johnson, C.D. Keeling, T. Ono, K. Shitashima, B. Tilbrook, T. Takahashi, D.W. R. Wallace, Y.W. Watanabe, C. Winn, and C.S. Wong Consistency and synthesis of Pacific Ocean CO2 survey data. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 49 (2002): 21-58.

Clark, D.A., S.C. Piper, C.D. Keeling, and D.B. Clark Tropical rain forest tree growth and atmospheric carbon dynamics linked to interannual temperature variation during 1984-2000. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (2003): 5852-5857.

Le Quere, C., O. Aumont, L. Bopp, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, R. Francey, M. Heimann, C.D. Keeling, R.F. Keeling, H. Kheshgi, P. Peylin, S.C. Piper, I.C. Prentice, and P.J. Rayner Two decades of ocean CO2 sink and variability. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 55 (2003): 649-656.

Nemani, R.R., C.D. Keeling, H. Hashimoto, W.M. Jolly, S.C. Piper, C.J. Tucker, R.B. Myneni, and S.W. Running Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999. Science. 300 (2003): 1560-1563.

Brix, H., N. Gruber, and C.D. Keeling Interannual variability of the upper ocean carbon cycle at station ALOHA near Hawaii. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 18 (2004): 18.

Hashimoto, H., R.R. Nemani, M.A. White, W.M. Jolly, S.C. Piper, C.D. Keeling, R.B. Myneni, and S.W. Running El Nino-Southern Oscillation-induced variability in terrestrial carbon cycling. Journal of Geophysical Research. 109 (2004): 8 pp.

Keeling, C.D., H. Brix, and N. Gruber Seasonal and long-term dynamics of the upper ocean carbon cycle at Station ALOHA near Hawaii. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 18 (2004): 28.

Keeling, Charles D., Stephen C. Piper, Robert B. Bacastow, Martin Wahlen, Timothy P. Whorf, Martin Heimann, and Harro A. Meijer Atmospheric CO2 and (CO2)-C13 exchange with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000: Observations and carbon cycle implications. A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. Ed. Ehleringer, J.R.,Cerling, T.E.,Dearing, M.D.. Springer-Verlag, 2005. 83-113.

Pataki, Diane E., Chun-Ta Lai, Charles D. Keeling, and James R. Ehleringer Insights from stable isotopes on the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World. Ed. Canadell, J.G.,Pataki, D.E.,Pitelka, L.F.. Berlin: Springer, 2007. 37-44.

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2010 - present

Keeling, Charles D., Stephen C. Piper, Timothy P. Whorf, and Ralph F. Keeling Evolution of natural and anthropogenic fluxes of atmospheric CO2 from 1957 to 2003. Tellus B. 63 (2011): 1-22.

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